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Divine Commanders

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    Divine Commanders Edit

    Deadly Duo Divine Commanders are typically two-card combinations of two separate commanders, with their abilities combined and/or improved. They are commonly used nowadays in every aspect of the game, since common/skill/legendary commanders have only limited ability on their own and cannot defeat the new instances commanders.

    The exception to this are single commanders of unique power and ability. They are classed as Divine but are not created by the merging of 2 commanders. These include:

    Chrome Dome

    Luna Silvestri

    Murphy Lawson

    Shadow Countess

    Slayer Bael

    The table below shows the name, scroll image, scroll location, card image, and the combining commanders.

    Name Scroll Scroll Location Card Commander #1 Commander #2 Carbuncle Cohort Icon Carbuncle Cohort Pernicious Princes Scroll

    Scroll Chest IV ,

    Chrome Dome - Special Events - - Deadly Duo

    Scroll Chest I , Capricorn.C04

    Death from Above Scroll Chest II Desolate Prayers Scroll Chest I Dopplegangers Libra.L01 , Libra.L04 ,
    Taurus.T04 , Scroll Chest VI Dune Enforcers - Special Events Enduring Chorus

    Scroll Chest IV , Leo.L04

    Erebus Errants Champions' Mall Eschaton Adventists Scroll Chest VI ,
    Taurus.T01 Eternal Terrors Scroll Chest II ,
    Aquarius.A03 Fairy & Fiend Scroll Chest II ,
    Pisces.P02 Fatal Furies Scroll Chest II ,
    Aquarius.A02 Fearmongers

    Scroll Chest IV ,

    Feral Raptors Champions' Mall Frontline Surge Scroll Chest I ,
    Capricorn.C02 Hand of Lelantos Scroll Chest VI ,
    Taurus.T02 Hekatian Witnesses Scroll Chest VI ,
    Taurus.T03 Homeric Hellions Champions' Mall Impending Doom Scroll Chest I ,
    Capricorn.C01 Indomitable Duo Scroll Chest II ,
    Aquarius.A01 Iron Maidens Scroll Chest III ,
    Pisces.P01 Kismet Beams Scroll Chest II ,
    Aquarius.A04 Leech Lurkers Champions' Mall Light & Darkness Scroll Chest I ,
    Capricorn.C03 Luna Silvestri - Special Events - - Lurking Light Champions' Mall Murphy Lawson - Special Events - - Pernicious Princes Scroll Chest IV ,
    Leo.L02 Queens of Blades Scorpio Rays of Destiny Scroll Chest I Rex Scuta Scroll Chest V ,
    Virgo Constellation Shadow Countess - Special Events - - Slayer Bael - Special Events - - Suicidal Sirens

    Scroll Chest III ,
    Pisces.P03 Summa Cum Laude Scroll Chest V ,
    Virgo Constellation Tactical Wizards Scroll Chest III Technomancers Scorpio The Dictators - Special Events The Forsaken Champions' Mall The Heartless Ones Champions' Mall The Pioneers Scorpio The Ravagers Scroll Chest IV The Twin Torpedoes Scroll Chest I Victory Roar Scroll Chest I Wildfire

    Scroll Chest III ,

    Winter Knights Champions' Mall

    Creating Divine Commanders Edit

    You need Divine Commander Scrolls to merge 2 Commanders into 1 Divine Commander.

    How to obtain Divine Commander Scrolls?
    They can be obtained from any of the 4 levels in Capricorn of the Constellation Instance . Besides Divine Commander Scrolls, there is a chance to get Scroll Chests in Capricorn Constellation Instance too. (Drop rate for Scroll Chests and Black Hole Blueprint Chests are the same in the Capricorn Constellation Instance, with the corresponding Divine Commander Scrolls as exception.)

    Scroll Chests contain different Divine Commander scrolls.Open the scroll to access the merging window. Place the required Commander Cards (of any star ranks) in the corresponding slots to begin merging. Failure will result in the loss of scroll but preserves the Commander cards. (Note: If the star ranks of both Commanders are different, the star rank of the merged Divine Commander will be the average of both Commanders rounded down. E.g. Merging a 1-star Commander and a 6-star Commander successfully will result in a 3-star Divine Commander.)

    Divine Commanders cross out the Commanders they are merged from. Once you merge cards into Divine Commander “The Twin Torpedoes” you lose both Commanders Gastaf and Todd.

    Commander General Stats Edit

    The following table is all the Divine Commanders and their General Stats. Their Corsairs' Gold trade-in value is also listed on this table.

    Name Type Ballistic Direct Missile Ship-Based Planet Frigate Cruiser Battleship Carbuncle Cohort Divine  600 9 22 11 15 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 Chrome Dome Divine  600 38 30 35 34 0 1 0 1 1 2 2 2 Deadly Duo Divine  600 19 17 17 12 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Death from Above Divine  600 24 24 24 24


    2 2 2 4 0 0 2 Desolate Prayers Divine  600 20 20 13 18 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 Dopplegangers Divine  600 34 45 44 45 0 1 0 0 2 1 0 0 Dune Enforcers Divine  600 35 35 25 40 1 3 0 0 1 1 2 0 Enduring Chorus Divine  600 8 19 21 6 2 2 2 2 2 1 0 1 Erebus Errants Divine  600 31 22 34 11 0 2 1 2 2 0 1 2 Eschaton Adventists Divine  600 38 30 31 25 2 1 0 0 1 2 0 1 Eternal Terrors Divine  600 29 10 11 23 3 3 0 0 4 2 2 2 Fairy & Fiend Divine  600 22 10 20 10


    1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Fatal Furies Divine  600 30 15 14 12


    1 1 1 1 2 2 2 Fearmongers Divine  600 19 15 12 21


    1 2 2 4 2 2 2 Feral Raptors Divine  600 18 14 20 10


    1 1 1 2 2 2 2 Frontline Surge Divine  600 15 10 17 3


    1 2 2 3 2 2 2 Hand of Lelantos Divine  600 36 34 32 34


    0 1 0 2 0 1 0 Hekatian Witnesses Divine  600 36 37 35 34


    1 0 1 2 1 2 2 Homeric Hellions Divine  600 38 45 25 12 Impending Doom Divine  600 10 12 7 17 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 Indomitable Duo Divine  600 12 25 17 14


    2 2 2 3 1 1 1 Iron Maidens Divine  600 10 21 19 5


    2 2 2 2 1 1 1 Kismet Beams Divine  600 25 20 10 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Leech Lurkers Divine  600 17 12 32 13 1 1 1 1 3 2 2 2 Light & Darkness Divine  600 12 15 21 3 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 Luna Silvestri Divine  600 14 19 40 13 1 0 0 1 3 1 0 1 Lurking Light Divine  600 11 7 24 12 1 1 1 1 3 2 2 2 Murphy Lawson Divine  600 28 34 36 30 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 Pernicious Princes Divine  600 20 20 20 20 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Queens of Blades Divine  600 28 27 21 18 1 1 0 1 4 2 2 2 Rays of Destiny Divine  600 21 12 15 9 1 1 1 2 2 2 0 2 Rex Scuta Divine  600 18 21 15 18 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Shadow Countess Divine  600 35 22 21 21 0 1 1 0 2 0 1 2 Slayer Bael Divine  600 11 12 5 10 0 1 1 0 3 1 1 0 Suicidal Sirens Divine  600 31 3 12 20


    1 0 0 3 1 1 1 Summa Cum Laude Divine  600 24 9 23 12


    1 1 0 4 3 3 3 Tactical Wizards Divine  600 9 16 12 22


    2 2 2 2 1 1 1 Technomancers Divine  600 14 30 25 19 2 0 2 1 2 1 20 1 The Dictators Divine  600 42 45 40 43 2 2 0 0 0 0 1 2 The Forsaken Divine  600 16 19 14 19 1 1 2 0 1 1 2 2 The Heartless Ones Divine  600 17 20 13 17 2 2 2 1 2 0 1 1 The Pioneers Divine  600 20 15 22 21 0 2 2 3 3 0 1 0 The Ravagers Divine  600 14 10 13 11 1 1 1 0 4 2 2 2 The Twin Torpedoes Divine  600 30 0 10 7


    1 1 1 4 2 2 2 Victory Roar Divine  600 17 16 19 15 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 Wildfire Divine  600 35 5 9 18 0 0 0 0 3 3 3 3 Winter Knights Divine  600 15 34 20 30 ed T


    Commander Special Stats Edit

    The following is the Special Stats for the Divine Commander Cards:

    Name Type Skill Affected by Special Ability Carbuncle Cohort Divine Corrosive Coil Dodge Will reflect 20% of the original damage taken, and then further reduce eedqyvvy. Relógios de senhora Longines damage taken by 15%, and finally spread the remaining damage equally across all ships in the fleet. Chrome Dome Divine 10-Ton Strike Accuracy and Dodge During Movement Phase, Chrome Dome has a chance to increase fleet ATK by 10x and deal 20% Scattering damage to enemy ships until the end of the Round. Deadly Duo Divine Crucifer Sweep Accuracy This skill has a chance to deal an additional 50% Scattering Damage and 40% Piercing damage during all attacks. Death from Above Divine Death's Clutches Accuracy , Speed, Dodge and Electron If Death from Above successfully deals either a double or critical attack while the sum of their 4 base stats exceed that of the enemy's, all adjacent ships will deal double attacks or critical strikes. Enemy abilities will be nullified as well. Desolate Prayers Divine Decaying Wane Speed and Accuracy This skill has the chance to lower all 4 stats of an enemy commander to 0. The target will also be immobilized in the next round. Dopplegangers Divine Fierce Mutation All Each time Dopplegangers level up, the total increment of the Dopplegangers' 4 attributes is increased by an additional 5 points. At the beginning of each engagement, the Dopplegangers will copy the enemy commander's skill until the end of the engagement. The conditions required for the copied skill to trigger is also copied. The chance of the copied skill to trigger is now affected by the Dopplegangers' attributes. Dune Enforcers Divine Shadow Counter Dodge and Speed Each time Dune Enforcers level up, the total increment of Dune Enforcers' four attributes is increased by an additional 5 points. When attacked, the Dune Enforcers have a chance to absorb all damage and reflect it back to the attacker. Enduring Chorus Divine Renewed Faith Speed Has a chance each round to fully restore all Shield and Structure points and increase the Dodge attribute of all friendly forces within 4 spaces by 5. This buff can be stacked. Erebus Errants Divine Shadow Storm Dodge Each time Erebus Errants levels up, the total value of their 4 attributes will increase by an additional 5 points. Erebus Errants also has a chance to negate all damage when attacked. Eschaton Adventists Divine Abject Humiliation Accuracy and Dodge Each time Eschaton Adventists level up, the total increment of Eschaton Adventists' four attributes is increased by an additional 5 points. When Eschaton Adventists attack, there is a chance to reduce the enemy Commander's stats to 0 for the next round. Eternal Terrors Divine Battle Preparations Accuracy and Electron While attacking, chance to instantly reload all weapons, and reduce an enemy commander's attack power and block their abilities next round. Fairy & Fiend Divine Double Whammy Accuracy and Speed Chance to deal additional structural damage, ignoring the enemy's defenses altogether. Actual damage is based on amount dealt to enemy shields. Fatal Furies Divine Battering Barrage Accuracy and Speed This skill has chance to deal 2x damage to the enemy. Total damage is unaffected by target's Shield, Modules, and Stability. Fearmongers Divine Omen of Doom Electron While attacking or defending, has a chance to increase enemy He3 cost by 5 times and reduce enemy attack power by 50% until end of next round. Feral Raptors Divine Suicide Strike Accuracy and Speed Chance to deal 6x damage while attacking but also reflects 10% of damage back to your ships. Frontline Surge Divine Pioneer Prowl Speed This skill has a chance to move your fleets an additional 3 spaces and increase attack values by 10% for every space that fleet moves. Hand of Lelantos Divine Unseen Strike Accuracy Each time Hand of Lelantos level up, the total increment of Hand of Lelantos' four attributes is increased by an additional 5 points. If the Hand of Lelantos's Accuracy is higher than the enemy commander's Dodge, all attacks will ignore the enemy fleet's Overall Ship Defense and Agility. Hekatian Witnesses Divine Hekatian Edict Accuracy and Dodge Each time the Hekatian Witnesses level up, the total increment of Hekatian Witnesses' four attributes is increased by an additional 5 points. Hekatian Witnesses have a chance to destroy an entire ship stack each time it is dealt damage by the Hekatian Witnesses. Impending Doom Divine Insidious Infliction Dodge & Electron This skill increases the dodge rate of your ships and, if attacked, will deal 10% more damage the next round (stackable). Indomitable Duo Divine Divine Barrier Dodge If Indomitable Duo's Dodge rating is higher than the enemy commander's Accuracy rating, scattering damage and formation penalty is ignored while under attack. Also increases fleet stability. Iron Maidens Divine Fountain of Youth Speed and Dodge If the total combined value of Iron Maidens'base stats exceed those of the enemy commander, their ships'stability will increase to their maximum and has the chance to fully restore Shields and Structures each round. Kismet Beams Divine Supreme Smite Accuracy and Speed This skill has a chance to deal 2x damage to the enemy and 30% Scattering damage to all enemy fleets. Leech Lurkers Divine Covert Syphon Accuracy and Speed Reduces the chance of being hit and increases Attack Power by 15% for one round. Additional chance to reduce the Durability, Structures and Shields of enemies within 2 steps by 5% each turn. Light & Darkness Divine Darkened Halo Speed This skill increases the Shield and Structure values of friendly fleets within 4 steps by 8% after each round and has a chance to reduce the Durability, structures, and Shields of enemy fleets within 2 steps by 5% after every turn. Luna Silvestri Divine Moon Blessing Speed & Dodge During her Movement Phase, Luna has a chance to reduce target's Max Shields and Structure by 90% when she attacks, nullify all bonus DMG from lateral and rear attacks and increase Stability until the end of the round. Lurking Light Divine Phasing Halo Dodge & Speed Has a chance to dodge attacks, increase Attack Power by 15% for one round, and increase Shield and Structure values of friendly forces within 4 spaces by 8% at end of the round. Murphy Lawson Divine Rock 'N Roll Dodge & Speed Chance to reduce ship defense of targeted enemy fleet to 0 and increase Attack Power of own fleet by 800%. Affected by the Dodge and Speed attributes. Ship defense of enemy fleets is restored at the end of the round. Pernicious Princes Divine Chain Vortex Accuracy

    , Speed, Dodge and Electron

    If the sum of Pernicious Princes’ 4 base stats exceed that of the enemy commander’s, any double attack or critical strike will ignore enemy fleet Defense and Agility and also trigger a double attack or critical strike for the ships in the following fleet slot. Queens of Blades Divine Assimilation Accuracy and Speed After moving, there's a chance Queens of Blades won't be the target of enemy attacks. Queens of Blades can be targeted if it is the only commander left. Queens of Blades also gain a 15% Attack Power boost until the end of the round and while attacking has a chance to increase the fleet's attack strength by 10%. Boost can be stacked and remains in effect until the end of battle. Rays of Destiny Divine Judgement Accuracy , Dodge, Speed & Electron This skill has a chance to deal an additional 30% Scattering damage to all enemy forces and reflect all absorbed damage to its source. Rex Scuta Divine Immunity Accuracy

    , Speed, Dodge and Electron

    If the sum of Rex Scuta's Base Stats exceed those of the enemy commander, the Stability of Rex Scuta's ships will increase to the maximum. Effect also nullifies the enemy commander's abilities. Shadow Countess Divine Shadow Cloak Speed & Dodge At the end of the movement phase, has a chance to restore Shield and Structure of allied fleets within 4 spaces by 75%. Also increases Overall Ship Defense of allied Commanders within 4 spaces by 35 (does not stack). Slayer Bael Divine Berserker Barrage Accuracy & Dodge During movement phase, Slayer Bael has a chance to get +500 Accuracy, and deal 500% damage while attacking, until end of the Round. Suicidal Sirens Divine Risky Surge Accuracy & Electron Chance to deal 3x damage and instantly reload weapons, but also reflects 10% damage to attacking ship. Summa Cum Laude Divine Verdant Force Accuracy & Speed Has a chance to be unaffected by the target's Shield, Shield Modules and Stability during an attack and instantly reload all weapons after the attack. Tactical Wizards Divine Bamboozle Dodge & Electron Chance to avoid damage and increase enemy He3 costs by up to 5 times. Technomancers Divine Null Field Accuracy and Dodge While attacking or defending, there's a chance to prevent the enemy commander from using skills for the next round. The Dictators Divine Mutated Dominance All Each time The Dictators level up, their four attributes will increase by an additional 5 points. Enemy commanders will also have their ability nullified if the sum of The Dictators' base stats is higher than that of the enemy commander. The Forsaken Divine Brainwash Accuracy and Dodge Chance to cause the attacking or defending enemy fleet to skip its next Round. The Heartless Ones Divine Silence Accuracy and Dodge Chance to reduce the attacking or defending enemy commander's 4 attributes to 0. The Pioneers Divine Singularity All If the total combined value of The Pioneers' 4 base stats exceed those of the opposing commander, the stability of their ships will increase to their maximum strength and the fleet will not suffer any scattering damage. The Ravagers Divine Smash and Grab Accuracy and Electron If all ships in a single enemy fleet slot are destroyed by ships in a single fleet slot under the command of The Ravagers, Attack Power of those ships will double. This buff can be stacked up to 8 times. There is also a chance, affected by Accuracy and Electron attributes, that those ships will instantly reload all weapons. The Twin Torpedoes Divine Sharpshooter Storm Accuracy This skill increases the critical strike rate of the commanded fleet and the chance of attacking the target twice. Victory Roar Divine Eradicate Accuracy This skill has the potential to cancel out a target's defenses and deal triple damage when attacking, but also inflicts 10% recoil damage to the ship commanded. Wildfire Divine Trigger Happy Accuracy and Electron Chance to deal 30% Scattering damage to enemy ships and instantly reload weapons. Winter Knights Divine Snow Blind Accuracy and Dodge At the end of movement, there is a chance Winter Knights cannot be a target of enemy attacks and gain +15% Attack Power until end of the Round; also increases overall ship defense of allied fleets within 4 spaces by 10 until end of next Round.

    Commander Star Bonuses and Effective Stack Increases Edit

    The following table is the bonuses for Star increases for Commanders. For each level increase that the Commander obtains, Stats ( Accuracy , Dodge, Electron and Speed) will increase by the Min Stat and Max Stat. The effective Stacking will also increase based on the star level.

    Commander Type Star Min Stat / Lvl Max Stat / Lvl Frigate Cruiser Battleship Divine Commander 12 13 27 24 22 14 15 82 74 67 16 17 168 153 138 18 19 292 265 239 20 21 462 420 378 22 23 690 628 565 24 25 996 905 815 26 27 1405 1277 1149 28 29 1900 1777 1599

    Commanders Common Commanders Skill Commanders Alicia   · Angla   · Donna   · Essido   · Evi   · Heloyce   · Jason   · Jerome   · Kelly   · Lawrence   · Mantie   · Maxius   · Motima   · Natiya   · Panis   · Rayllf   · Reggie   · Shaba   · Sofia   · Taude   · Tyren   · Vinna   · Wayne Super Commanders Andrew   · Anna   · Annata   · Bruce   · Eveline   · Gastaf   · Jakar   · Joseph   · Leo   · Linda   · Lynn   · Miller   · Nick   · Penni   · Raslin   · Ringel   · Rocky   · Sylla   · Sylva   · Todd Legendary Commanders Aileen   · Bain   · Bart   · Circe   · Callisto   · Carlos   · Cassius   · Dilira   · Hellen   · Krina Klaus   · Maletiz   · Marcus   · Medusa   · Nora   · Rafia   · Rayo   · Robert   · Sandora   · Singhri   · Stani   · Titan   · Venus Divine Commanders Carbuncle Cohort   · Chrome Dome   · Deadly Duo   · Death from Above   · Desolate Prayers   · Dune Enforcers   · Dopplegangers   · Enduring Chorus   · Erebus Errants   · Eschaton Adventists   · Eternal Terrors   · Fairy & Fiend   · Fatal Furies   · Fearmongers   · Feral Raptors   · Frontline Surge   · Hand of Lelantos   · Hekatian Witnesses   · Homeric Hellions   · Impending Doom   · Indomitable Duo   · Iron Maidens   · Kismet Beams   · Leech Lurkers   · Light & Darkness   · Luna Silvestri   · Lurking Light   · Murphy Lawson   · Pernicious Princes   · Queens of Blades   · Rays of Destiny   · Rex Scuta   · Shadow Countess   · Slayer Bael   · Suicidal Sirens   · Summa Cum Laude   · Tactical Wizards   · Technomancers   · The Dictators   · The Forsaken   · The Heartless Ones   · The Pioneers   · The Ravagers   · The Twin Torpedoes   · Victory Roar   · Wildfire   · Winter Knights Retrieved from " "

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    Include this on your site/blog: Categories: Walhalla enshrinees > Viennese composers > The Enlightenment > Smallpox survivors > Opera composers > Romantic composers > People from the Electorate of Cologne > People from Bonn > Ludwig van Beethoven > German Roman Catholics > German people of Flemish descent > German composers > German classical pianists > Deaf musicians > Classical era composers > Burials at the Zentralfriedhof > Austrian people of German descent > 18th-century German people > 18th-century Austrian people > 1827 deaths > 1770 births


    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    "Beethoven" redirects here. For other uses, see Beethoven (disambiguation). A portrait by Joseph Karl Stieler, 1820. Beethoven Signature.svg . Ludwig van Beethoven (pronounced /ˈluːdˌvɪɡ vɑːn ˈbeɪˌtoʊvən/ (U.S.) or /ˈlʊdˌvɪɡ væn ˈbeɪtˌhoʊvən/ (UK); German:  [ˈluːt.vɪç fan ˈbeːt.hoːfən]   ( listen) ; baptised 17 December 1770 [ 1 ] – 26 March 1827) was a German composer and pianist. ^  The Flemish way: Ludwig Van Beethoven of Van Beethoven.
    ^  Ludwig Van Beethoven .
    ^  Ludwig Van Beethoven - The Late Piano Sonatas, Volume 2 .
    . He was a crucial figure in the transitional period between the Classical and Romantic eras in Western classical music, and remains one of the most acclaimed and influential composers of all time. ^  The Most Romantic classical music in the universe .
    ^  VARMA RODA STUNDER - Romantisk Klassisk Musik (Warm Red Hours - Romantic Classical Music) (3CD set) .
    ^  Classical Moods - 100 Top Classical Favorites Of All Time .
    . Born in Bonn, of the Electorate of Cologne and a part of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation in present-day Germany, he moved to Vienna in his early twenties and settled there, studying with Joseph Haydn and quickly gaining a reputation as a virtuoso pianist. ^  Real Name: Ludwig van Beethoven Profile: Ludwig was born in Bonn in 1770, the eldest son of a singer in the Kapelle of the Archbishop-Elector of Cologne and grandson of the Archbishop's Kapellmeister, Beethoven moved in 1792 to Vienna, where he had some lessons from Haydn and others, quickly establishing himself as a remarkable keyboard-player and original composer.
    ^  Born in Bonn in 1770, the eldest son of a singer in the Kapelle of the Archbishop-Elector of Cologne and grandson of the Archbishop's Kapellmeister, Beethoven moved in 1792 to Vienna, where he had some lessons from Haydn and others, quickly establishing himself as a remarkable keyboard-player and original composer.
    His hearing began to deteriorate in the late 1790s, yet he continued to compose, conduct, and perform, even after becoming completely deaf.



    Prince-Elector's Palace (Kurfürstliches Schloss) in Bonn, where the Beethoven family had been active since the 1730s.

    Background and early life

    . Beethoven was the grandson of a musician of Flemish origin named Lodewijk van Beethoven (1712–1773). ^  Anyway, the use of "van" ("from") does suggests that the name points to a particular place, be it the original "better meadow" or the later one developed "beetgarden".
    ^  Seen from a Dutch point of view the composer's name was not just "Beethoven", but "Van Beethoven", the word "van" being a part of the name itself, not pointing to a particular descent.
    ^  There is a slight difference between the Dutch and Flemish way to write down Beethoven's name.
    [ 2 ] . Beethoven was named after his grandfather, as Lodewijk is the Dutch counterpart of Ludwig. ^  Find where Ludwig van Beethoven is credited alongside another name Ludwig van Beethoven & .
    ^  Seen from a Dutch point of view the composer's name was not just "Beethoven", but "Van Beethoven", the word "van" being a part of the name itself, not pointing to a particular descent.
    ^  There is a slight difference between the Dutch and Flemish way to write down Beethoven's name.
    . Beethoven's grandfather was employed as a bass singer at the court of the Elector of Cologne, rising to become Kapellmeister (music director). ^  Dance Music Famous composers like Haydn and Mozart were also employed in the practical business of providing dance music for court and social occasions.
    ^  Born in Bonn in 1770, the eldest son of a singer in the Kapelle of the Archbishop-Elector of Cologne and grandson of the Archbishop's Kapellmeister, Beethoven moved in 1792 to Vienna, where he had some lessons from Haydn and others, quickly establishing himself as a remarkable keyboard-player and original composer.
    ^  Born in Bonn in 1770, the eldest son of a singer in the Kapelle of the Archbishop-Elector of Cologne and grandson of the Archbishop's Kapellmeister, Beethoven moved in 1792 to Vienna, where he had some lessons from Haydn and others, quickly establishing himself as a...
    . He had one son, Johann van Beethoven (1740–1792), who worked as a tenor in the same musical establishment, also giving lessons on piano and violin to supplement his income. ^  Johann van Beethoven, father?
    ^  Nikolaus Johann van Beethoven, brother .
    ^  Beethoven completed nine symphonies, works that influenced the whole future of music by the expansion of the traditional classical form.
    [ 2 ] . Johann married Maria Magdalena Keverich in 1767; she was the daughter of Johann Heinrich Keverich, who had been the head chef at the court of the Archbishopric of Trier. ^  Maria Magdalena Keverich, mother?
    [ 3 ] House of birth, Bonn, Bonngasse 20, now the Beethoven-Haus museum. . Beethoven was born of this marriage in Bonn; he was baptized in a Roman Catholic service on 17 December 1770, and was probably born the previous day, 16 December. ^  Terug/Back Frequently Asked Questions Was Beethoven born on December 16, 1770?
    ^  Was Beethoven born on December 16, 1770?
    ^  The date of his baptismal certificate is December 17 and in his days roman catholic babies mostly were baptized within 24 hours after their birth.
    [ 4 ] . Children of that era were usually baptized the day after birth; and it is known that Beethoven's family and his teacher Johann Albrechtsberger celebrated his birthday on 16 December. ^  Was Beethoven born on December 16, 1770?
    ^  The date of his baptismal certificate is December 17 and in his days roman catholic babies mostly were baptized within 24 hours after their birth.
    ^  Another proof is an unfortunately now lost letter by Albrechtsberger, one of Beethoven's Viennese teachers, who wrote this letter to his pupil on December 15 and sent him his congratulations for the next day.
    . While this evidence supports the case for 16 December 1770 as Beethoven's date of birth, it cannot be stated with certainty as there is no documentary evidence of it (only his baptismal record survives). ^  Was Beethoven born on December 16, 1770?
    ^  The date of his baptismal certificate is December 17 and in his days roman catholic babies mostly were baptized within 24 hours after their birth.
    ^  Beethoven: String Quartets Nos 11-16 incl.
    [ 5 ] [ 6 ] . Of the seven children born to Johann van Beethoven, only the second-born, Ludwig, and two younger brothers survived infancy. ^  Best of the Classics: Ludwig van Beethoven .
    ^  Ludwig van Beethoven: Symphonies No.
    ^  Biographie de Ludwig Van Beethoven .
    Caspar Anton Carl was born on 8 April 1774, and Nikolaus Johann, the youngest, was born on 2 October 1776. [ 7 ] Beethoven's first music teacher was his father. A traditional belief concerning Johann is that he was a harsh instructor, and that the child Beethoven, "made to stand at the keyboard, was often in tears". [ 2 ] However, the New Grove indicates that there is no solid documentation to support it, and asserts that "speculation and myth-making have both been productive." [ 2 ] Beethoven had other local teachers as well: the court organist Gilles van den Eeden (d. . 1782), Tobias Friedrich Pfeiffer (a family friend, who taught Beethoven piano), and a relative, Franz Rovantini (violin and viola). ^  Adagio con espressione 1012 - Quartet WoO 36 No.3 in C major for piano,violin,viola and cello: 3.
    ^  Andante con moto 1009 - Quartet WoO 36 No.2 in D major for piano,violin,viola and cello: 3.
    ^  Who was the mysterious Elise to whom Beethoven dedicated that famous bagatelle for piano?
    [ 2 ] His musical talent manifested itself early. Johann, aware of Leopold Mozart's successes in this area, attempted to exploit his son as a child prodigy, claiming that Beethoven was six (he was seven) on the posters for Beethoven's first public performance in March 1778. [ 8 ] . Some time after 1779, Beethoven began his studies with his most important teacher in Bonn, Christian Gottlob Neefe, who was appointed the Court's Organist in that year. ^  Christian Gottlieb Neefe, teacher .
    ^  Alexander Wheelock Thayer, Beethoven's most important biographer .
    ^  Gallery of portraits of some important persons in Beethoven's life .
    [ 9 ] . Neefe taught Beethoven composition, and by March 1783 had helped him write his first published composition: a set of keyboard variations (WoO 63). ^  The first who tried to write a complete anamnesis of all Beethoven's illnesses, including, of course, his deafness was Schweisheimer and he did so in 1922.
    ^  BEETHOVEN: Archduke Trio / Kakadu Variations / Allegretto, WoO 39 .
    ^  BEETHOVEN: 'Eroica' Variations / 32 Variations, WoO 80 .
    [ 7 ] Beethoven soon began working with Neefe as assistant organist, first on an unpaid basis (1781), and then as paid employee (1784) of the court chapel conducted by the Kapellmeister Andrea Luchesi. . His first three piano sonatas, named "Kurfürst" ("Elector") for their dedication to the Elector Maximilian Frederick, were published in 1783. Maximilian Frederick, who died in 1784, not long after Beethoven's appointment as assistant organist, had noticed Beethoven's talent early, and had subsidized and encouraged the young Beethoven's musical studies. ^  E flat major - II. Andante 58 - 3 Sonatas for piano WoO 47 (Electoral): No.
    ^  Even more shocking was the importance they placed on the name of > the apartments Beethoven died in, the Schwarzspanierhaus, as if that name > had something to do with Beethoven's racial lineage.
    ^  E major 56 - 3 Sonatas for piano WoO 47 (Electoral): No.
    [ 10 ] Maximilian Frederick's successor as the Elector of Bonn was Maximilian Franz, the youngest son of Empress Maria Theresa of Austria, and he brought notable changes to Bonn. Echoing changes made in Vienna by his brother Joseph, he introduced reforms based on Enlightenment philosophy, with increased support for education and the arts. The teenage Beethoven was almost certainly influenced by these changes. He may also have been strongly influenced at this time by ideas prominent in freemasonry, as Neefe and others around Beethoven were members of the local chapter of the Order of the Illuminati. [ 11 ] . In March 1787 Beethoven traveled to Vienna (it is unknown at whose expense) for the first time, apparently in the hope of studying with Mozart. ^  Ludwig van Beethoven died on March 26, 1827, in Vienna.
    ^  Mrs Beethoven opens the door and we see for the first time a strange sight.
    ^  In January 1787 young Beethoven travelled to Vienna and we can safely assume that he wanted to become Mozart's pupil.
    . The details of their relationship are uncertain, including whether or not they actually met. ^  From the moment they met their relationship was a hostile one and later on the two began to hate each other.
    [ 12 ] After just two weeks there Beethoven learned that his mother was severely ill, and he was forced to return home. . His mother died shortly thereafter, and the father lapsed deeper into alcoholism. ^  Beethoven's mother died of tuberculosis (in 1787), Beethoven's father probably of a heart attack (in 1792).
    As a result, Beethoven became responsible for the care of his two younger brothers, and he spent the next five years in Bonn. [ 13 ] . Beethoven was introduced to a number of people who became important in his life in these years. ^  It is up to people like you and me who are out of our tiny little minds to try and help these people overcome their sanity.
    Franz Wegeler, a young medical student, introduced him to the von Breuning family (one of whose daughters Wegeler eventually married). . Beethoven was often at the von Breuning household, where he was exposed to German and classical literature, and where he also gave piano instruction to some of the children. ^  Geschichte der Englischen Sprache und Literatur von den ältesten Zeiten bis zur Einführung der Buchdruckerkunst (German) (as Author) Behrend, Arthur C. .
    ^  Ernst Von Dohnányi Plays Beethoven: Piano Sonatas No.
    ^  Beethoven: Classical Piano Series Volume Seven .
    The von Breuning family environment was also less stressful than his own, which was increasingly dominated by his father's strict control and descent into alcoholism. [ 14 ] It is also in these years that Beethoven came to the attention of Count Ferdinand von Waldstein, who became a lifelong friend and financial supporter. [ 15 ] A portrait of the thirteen-year-old Beethoven by an unknown Bonn master (c. 1783). In 1789, he obtained a legal order by which half of his father's salary was paid directly to him for support of the family. [ 16 ] He also contributed further to the family's income by playing viola in the court orchestra. This familiarized Beethoven with a variety of operas, including three of Mozart's operas performed at court in this period. He also befriended Anton Reicha, a flautist and violinist of about his own age who was the conductor's nephew. [ 17 ]

    Establishing his career in Vienna

    With the Elector's help, Beethoven moved to Vienna in 1792. [ 18 ] He was probably first introduced to Joseph Haydn in late 1790, when the latter was traveling to London and stopped in Bonn around Christmas time. [ 19 ] . They definitely met in Bonn on Haydn's return trip from London to Vienna in July 1792, and it is likely that arrangements were made at that time for Beethoven to study with the old master. ^  Born in Bonn in 1770, the eldest son of a singer in the Kapelle of the Archbishop-Elector of Cologne and grandson of the Archbishop's Kapellmeister, Beethoven moved in 1792 to Vienna, where he had some lessons from Haydn and others, quickly establishing himself as a remarkable keyboard-player and original composer.
    ^  Born in Bonn in 1770, the eldest son of a singer in the Kapelle of the Archbishop-Elector of Cologne and grandson of the Archbishop's Kapellmeister, Beethoven moved in 1792 to Vienna, where he had some lessons from Haydn and others, quickly establishing himself as a...
    [ 20 ] In the intervening years, Beethoven composed a significant number of works (none were published at the time, and most are now listed as works without opus) that demonstrated a growing range and maturity of style. Musicologists have identified a theme similar to those of his third symphony in a set of variations written in 1791. [ 21 ] Beethoven left Bonn for Vienna in November 1792, amid rumors of war spilling out of France, and learned shortly after his arrival that his father had died. [ 22 ] [ 23 ] . Count Waldstein in his farewell note to Beethoven wrote: "Through uninterrupted diligence you will receive Mozart's spirit through Haydn's hands." ^  Organ Recital: Athanasiades, Georges - PURCELL, H. / FRESCOBALDI, G.A. / HAYDN, F.J. / MOZART, W.A. / BEETHOVEN, L. van .
    ^  Beethoven / Haydn / Mozart / Back: Israeli Wind Virtuosi and Friends - Volume 2 .
    [ 23 ] . Beethoven responded to the widespread feeling that he was a successor to the recently deceased Mozart over the next few years by studying that master's work and writing works with a distinctly Mozartean flavor. ^  According to Beethoven’s Latvian admirer and connoisseur of his works, Wilhelm von Lenz, Beethoven definitely forgot Haydn and Mozart and initiated a second phase in his creative evolution.
    [ 24 ] . Beethoven did not immediately set out to establish himself as a composer, but rather devoted himself to study and to playing the piano. ^  Set of performance parts (includes separate pull-out violin part) for violin and piano.
    ^  Vienna, Austria, with Beethoven conducting and playing piano.
    ^  Glenn Gould Plays Beethoven Piano Sonatas (feat.
    Working under Haydn's direction, [ 25 ] he sought to master counterpoint. He also took violin lessons from Ignaz Schuppanzigh. [ 26 ] Early in this period, he also began receiving occasional instruction from Antonio Salieri, primarily in Italian vocal composition style; this relationship persisted until at least 1802, and possibly 1809. [ 27 ] With Haydn's departure for England in 1794, Beethoven was expected by the Elector to return home. He chose instead to remain in Vienna, continuing his instruction in counterpoint with Johann Albrechtsberger and other teachers. Although his stipend from the Elector expired, a number of Viennese noblemen had already recognized his ability and offered him financial support, among them Prince Joseph Franz Lobkowitz, Prince Karl Lichnowsky, and Baron Gottfried van Swieten. [ 28 ] Portrait of Beethoven as a young man by Carl Traugott Riedel (1769 – 1832) . By 1793, Beethoven established a reputation in Vienna as a piano virtuoso and improviser in the salons of the nobility, often playing the preludes and fugues of J. S. Bach's Well-Tempered Clavier. ^  Vienna, Austria, with Beethoven at the piano.
    ^  Vienna, Austria, with Beethoven conducting and playing piano.
    ^  Beethoven was the piano teacher of Therèse and Josephine Brunswick in Vienna.
    [ 29 ] His friend Nikolaus Simrock had also begun publishing his compositions; the first are believed to be a set of variations (WoO 66). [ 30 ] . Beethoven spent much of 1794 composing, and apparently withheld works from publication so that their publication in 1795 would have greater impact. ^  Beethoven did much to enlarge the possibilities of music and widen the horizons of later generations of composers.
    ^  Ludwig van Beethoven composed his "Kreutzer Sonata" for Bridgetower, and accompanied him on piano at the work’s premiere in Vienna in 1803.
    ^  Unfortunately, Madame de Morouges-Bigot, who stunned the old Haydn too with her phenomenal artistry, never played Beethoven’s works in public!
    [ 28 ] . Beethoven's first public performance in Vienna was in March 1795, a concert in which he debuted a piano concerto. ^  Ludwig van Beethoven died on March 26, 1827, in Vienna.
    ^  Radu Lupu Plays Beethoven Piano Concerto No.
    ^  Beethoven - Piano Concerto No.4 In G Major, Opus 58 (LP) .
    It is uncertain whether this was the First or Second, as documentary evidence is unclear, and both concertos were in a similar state of near-completion (neither was completed or published for several years). [ 31 ] [ 32 ] Shortly after this performance, he arranged for the publication of the first of his compositions to which he assigned an opus number, the piano trios of Opus 1. These works were dedicated to his patron Prince Lichnowsky, [ 31 ] and were a financial success; Beethoven's profits were nearly sufficient to cover his living expenses for a year. [ 33 ]

    Wider publicity

    Beethoven in 1803. . In 1796, Beethoven embarked on a tour of central European cultural centers that was an echo of a similar tour by Mozart in 1789. Accompanied by Prince Lichnowsky (who also accompanied Mozart on his tour), Beethoven visited Prague, Dresden, Leipzig, and Berlin, composing and performing to acclaim. ^  Ludwig van Beethoven composed his "Kreutzer Sonata" for Bridgetower, and accompanied him on piano at the work’s premiere in Vienna in 1803.
    ^  D-minor, composed in 1802, announced the first performance of the «Tempest» Sonata by Ludwig van Beethoven.
    ^  Kunst der Fuge George Augustus Polgreen Bridgetower (c.1780-1860): African European Violinist Accompanied by Beethoven George Augustus Polgreen Bridgetower (c.1780-1860) was an African European violin virtuoso.
    He spent the most time in Prague, where his reputation had already preceded him through Lichnowsky's family connections, and Berlin, where he composed . 2, Opus 5 (Beethoven)" class="mw-redirect">two cello sonatas (Op. ^  Beethoven : Hammerklavier Sonatas Op.101, 106 .
    ^  An English concert organizer before the London première of Beethoven’s Sonata op.
    ^  Andante - Allegro vivace 1068 - Sonata for Cello and Piano No.4 in C, Op.102 No.1: 2.
    5) dedicated to King Friedrich Wilhelm II, a lover of music who played that instrument. . These works are notable for successfully combining virtuoso cello and piano parts, a difficult task considering the differing natures of the two instruments. ^  Instrumental solo book for cello solo and piano accompaniment.
    ^  Beethoven Piano and Cello Works (Tanya Tomkins and Eric Zivian) .
    ^  Beethoven: The Complete Works For Cello And Piano .
    [ 34 ] The king presented Beethoven with a snuffbox full of gold coins; Beethoven observed that the trip earned him "a good deal of money". [ 35 ] Beethoven returned to Vienna in July 1796, and embarked on another tour in November, heading east instead of north, to the cities of Pressburg (present-day Bratislava) and Pest. At Pressburg he performed on a piano sent from Vienna by his friend Andreas Streicher, [ 36 ] a piano he joked was "far too good for me..because it robs me of the freedom to produce my own tone". [ 37 ] . Beethoven spent most of 1797 in Vienna, where he continued to compose (apparently in response to an increasing number of commissions) and perform, although he was apparently stricken with a serious disease (possibly typhus) in the summer or autumn. ^  Beethoven wrote a number of sets of Minuets, German Dances and Contredanses, ending with the so-called Mdlinger Dances, written for performers at a neighbouring inn during a summer holiday outside Vienna.
    It is also around this time (although it may have been as early as 1795) that he first became aware of issues with his hearing. [ 38 ] While he traveled to Prague again in 1798, the encroaching deafness led him to eventually abandon concert touring entirely. [ 39 ]

    Musical maturity

    . Between 1798 and 1802 Beethoven finally tackled what he considered the pinnacles of composition: the string quartet and the symphony. ^  Beethoven, Volume 33, String Quartets .
    ^  Beethoven, Volume 34, String Quartet .
    ^  Beethoven Masterworks - String Quartets (disc 28) .
    With the composition of his first six string quartets (Op. 18) between 1798 and 1800 (written on commission for, and dedicated to, Prince Lobkowitz), and their publication in 1801, along with premieres of the First and Second Symphonies in 1800 and 1802, Beethoven was justifiably considered one of the most important of a generation of young composers following after Haydn and Mozart. He continued to write in other forms, turning out widely known piano sonatas like the "Pathétique" sonata (Op. . 13), which Cooper describes as "surpass[ing] any of his previous compositions, in strength of character, depth of emotion, level of originality, and ingenuity of motivic and tonal manipulation". [ 40 ] He also completed his Septet (Op. ^  Concerti Grossi (Complete) $13.95 241874 Great Organ Concerti, Op.
    20) in 1799, which was one of his most popular works during his lifetime. . For the premiere of his First Symphony, Beethoven hired the Burgtheater on 2 April 1800, and staged an extensive program of music, including works by Haydn and Mozart, as well as the Septet, the First Symphony, and one of his piano concertos (the latter three works all then unpublished). ^  Beethoven : Piano concertos nos.
    ^  Beethoven completed nine symphonies, works that influenced the whole future of music by the expansion of the traditional classical form.
    ^  Famous composers like Haydn and Mozart were also employed in the practical business of providing dance music for court and social occasions.
    The concert, which the Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung described as "the most interesting concert in a long time", was not without difficulties; among other criticisms was that "the players did not bother to pay any attention to the soloist". [ 41 ] . While Mozart and Haydn were undeniable influences (for example, Beethoven's quintet for piano and winds is said to bear a strong resemblance to Mozart's work for the same configuration, albeit with his own distinctive touches), [ 42 ] other composers like Muzio Clementi were also stylistic influences [citation needed] . ^  MOZART: Piano Quintet in E flat major / BEETHOVEN: Piano Quintet in E flat major .
    ^  Beethoven completed nine symphonies, works that influenced the whole future of music by the expansion of the traditional classical form.
    ^  Famous composers like Haydn and Mozart were also employed in the practical business of providing dance music for court and social occasions.
    . Beethoven's melodies, musical development, use of modulation and texture, and characterization of emotion all set him apart from his influences, and heightened the impact some of his early works made when they were first published. ^  Piano Music Beethoven's 32 numbered piano sonatas make full use of the developing form of piano, with its wider range and possibilities of dynamic contrast.
    ^  The critic of the music magazine "Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung", terrified by Beethoven’s technical prowess in this work, denounced his "artistic terrorism"!
    ^  Orchestral Music Beethoven completed nine symphonies, works that influenced the whole future of music by the expansion of the traditional classical form.
    [ 43 ] By the end of 1800 Beethoven and his music were already much in demand from patrons and publishers. [ 44 ]


    Ludwig van Beethoven: detail of an 1804 portrait by W. J. Mähler. In May of 1799, Beethoven gave piano lessons to the daughters of Hungarian Countess Anna Brunsvik. . While this round of lessons lasted less than one month, Beethoven formed a relationship with the older daughter Josephine that has been the subject of much speculation ever since. ^  This is the one I want to have, so if you could just change the forms round I can take this one back with me now.
    Shortly after these lessons she married Count Josef Deym, and Beethoven was a regular visitor at their house, giving lessons and playing at parties. While her marriage was by all accounts unhappy, the couple had four children, and her relationship with Beethoven did not intensify until after Deym died in 1804. [ 45 ] Beethoven had few other students. . From 1801 to 1805, he tutored Ferdinand Ries, who went on to become a composer and later wrote Beethoven remembered, a book about their encounters. ^  Beethoven did much to enlarge the possibilities of music and widen the horizons of later generations of composers.
    The young Carl Czerny studied with Beethoven from 1801 to 1803. Czerny went on to become a renowned music teacher himself, taking on Franz Liszt as one of his students, and also gave the Vienna premiere of Beethoven's fifth piano concerto (the "Emperor") in 1812. . Beethoven's compositions between 1800 and 1802 were dominated by two works, although he continued to produce smaller works, including the Moonlight Sonata. ^  Ludwig van Beethoven composed his "Kreutzer Sonata" for Bridgetower, and accompanied him on piano at the work’s premiere in Vienna in 1803.
    ^  Favorite Beethoven Sonatas: Moonlight, Appassionata, Pathétique (Vladimir Horowitz) .
    ^  BEETHOVEN: 'Moonlight' Sonata / CHOPIN: Mazurkas (Friedman) (1923-1926) .
    . In the spring of 1801 he completed The Creatures of Prometheus, a ballet. ^  The ballet The Creatures of Prometheus was staged in Vienna in 1801, and he wrote incidental music for various other dramatic productions, including Goethe's Egmont, von Kotzebue's curious The Ruins of Athens, and the same writer's King Stephen.
    . The work was such a success that it received numerous performances in 1801 and 1802, and Beethoven rushed to publish a piano arrangement to capitalize on its early popularity. ^  D-minor, composed in 1802, announced the first performance of the «Tempest» Sonata by Ludwig van Beethoven.
    ^  Ludwig van Beethoven composed his "Kreutzer Sonata" for Bridgetower, and accompanied him on piano at the work’s premiere in Vienna in 1803.
    ^  BEETHOVEN, L. van: Piano Works (Complete), Vol.
    [ 46 ] In the spring of 1802 he completed the Second Symphony, intended for performance at a concert that was eventually cancelled. . The symphony received its premiere at a subscription concert in April 1803 at the Theater an der Wien, where Beethoven had been appointed as composer in residence. ^  April 1805: Premiere of Symphony no.
    ^  April 1803: Premiere of Symphony no.
    ^  April 1800: Premiere of Symphony no.
    In addition to the Second Symphony, the concert also featured the First Symphony, the Third Piano Concerto, and the oratorio Christ on the Mount of Olives. While reviews were mixed, the concert was a financial success; Beethoven was able to charge three times the cost of a typical concert ticket. [ 47 ] Beethoven's business dealings with publishers also began to improve in 1802 when his brother Carl, who had previously assisted him more casually, began to assume a larger role in the management of his affairs. . In addition to negotiating higher prices for recently composed works, Carl also began selling some of Beethoven's earlier unpublished works, and encouraged Beethoven (against the latter's preference) to also make arrangements and transcriptions of his more popular works for other instrument combinations. ^  Stunned by his virtuosity and his musicianship, Beethoven composed for him his opus 47, which includes some pages written much before Kreutzer’s concert in Vienna, sent him to Paris a hand-written copy of his work with dedication in French.
    ^  Ludwig van Beethoven composed his "Kreutzer Sonata" for Bridgetower, and accompanied him on piano at the work’s premiere in Vienna in 1803.
    ^  Life and Works of Beethoven Naxos new "Composer Sound-Portraits", containing 4 CDs and a 184 page booklet Discography .
    Beethoven acceded to these requests, as he could not prevent publishers from hiring others to do similar arrangements of his works. [ 48 ]

    Loss of hearing

    Around 1796, Beethoven began to lose his hearing. [ 49 ] He suffered a severe form of tinnitus, a "ringing" in his ears that made it hard for him to perceive and appreciate music; he also avoided conversation. The cause of Beethoven's deafness is unknown, but it has variously been attributed to syphilis, lead poisoning, typhus, auto-immune disorder (such as systemic lupus erythematosus), and even his habit of immersing his head in cold water to stay awake. The explanation, from the autopsy of the time, is that he had a "distended inner ear" which developed lesions over time. Because of the high levels of lead found in samples of Beethoven's hair, that hypothesis has been extensively analyzed. While the likelihood of lead poisoning is very high, the deafness associated with it seldom takes the form that Beethoven exhibited. As early as 1801, Beethoven wrote to friends describing his symptoms and the difficulties they caused in both professional and social settings (although it is likely some of his close friends were already aware of the problems). [ 50 ] Beethoven, on the advice of his doctor, lived in the small Austrian town of Heiligenstadt, just outside Vienna, from April to October 1802 in an attempt to come to terms with his condition. There he wrote his Heiligenstadt Testament, which records his resolution to continue living for and through his art. [ 51 ] Over time, his hearing loss became profound: there is a well-attested story that, at the end of the premiere of his Ninth Symphony, he had to be turned around to see the tumultuous applause of the audience; hearing nothing, he wept. [ 52 ] . Beethoven's hearing loss did not prevent his composing music, but it made playing at concerts—lucrative sources of income—increasingly difficult. ^  Beethoven did much to enlarge the possibilities of music and widen the horizons of later generations of composers.
    After a failed attempt in 1811 to perform his own Piano Concerto No. 5 (the "Emperor"), he never performed in public again. Beethoven in 1815. A large collection of Beethoven's hearing aids such as special ear horns can be viewed at the Beethoven House Museum in Bonn, Germany. Despite his obvious distress, Carl Czerny remarked that Beethoven could still hear speech and music normally until 1812. [ 53 ] By 1814 however, Beethoven was almost totally deaf, and when a group of visitors saw him play a loud arpeggio of thundering bass notes at his piano remarking, "Ist es nicht schön?" (Is it not beautiful?), they felt deep sympathy considering his courage and sense of humor. [ 54 ] . As a result of Beethoven's hearing loss, a unique historical record has been preserved: his conversation books.

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